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Pharmacology studies including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are essential at an early phase of drug development to shorten the timing to the proof-of-concept stage of the pre-clinical research. SIA has a strong experience in designing and performing in vivo pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) studies in mice and rats. We provide expert guidance and recommendations on formulations, administration routes and dosing regimens to fit your specific requirements.


SIA has a particular expertise in drug delivery by a variety of methods and administration routes. In addition to common administration routes -intravenous (IV), intraperitoneal (IP), subcutaneous (SC), topical, intra-muscle (IM) and oral administration (PO) we are also well-experienced in intra-cutaneous (IC), intra-tumor (ITu), intra-vitreal, intra-tracheal and more. For controlled, continuous delivery of a test item, ALZET osmotic infusion pumps can be used.


Additionally, our capabilities comprise cannulation into the bladder or gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system administration (CNS). Drugs can be administered to CNS into the brain intra-ventricle or by coordinated injection according to customers’ specifications, intrathecal (IT) into spinal cord or into cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF).

Pharmacology studies
Administration Routes


Ex-vivo studies designed to analyze the amounts of the test item in serum and different organs follows the in-vivo phase of pharmacokinetics experiment. At the end of the experiment, upon sacrifice the organs of interest (usually: blood, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, muscle, fat, pancreas, brain, bone, stomach, intestine, etc.) are isolated and can be analyzed by a variety of in vitro techniques. SIA has a well-equipped in vitro facility and qualified personnel to perform tracking of biological compounds in animal organs. 


Please refer to our in-vitro services section for more information on ex-vivo studies offered by SIA.

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